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0020- Afraid aghast alarmed anxious apprehensive fearful frightened scared terror-stricken

 0020- Afraid aghast alarmed anxious apprehensive fearful frightened scared terror-stricken

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Afraid means showing fear. When used by itself, no particular degree of fear is indicated. [She’s afraid of dogs, even of puppies; We are afraid to walk in the park at night since the woman was killed there.] In most uses, being afraid is personal, and the fear has to do with bodily harm. Afraid is also used in polite discourse to indicate nothing more than mild concern: I’m afraid I’m a bit late for my appointment. Sometimes this use conceals great fear: If our present policy is continued, I am afraid that war is inevitable.

Afraid意为显示恐惧.当仅仅使用Afraid时,不会特别表示恐惧的程度.例如:[She’s afraid of dogs, even of puppies(她害怕够,即便是小狗也害怕); We are afraid to walk in the park at night since the woman was killed there(我们不敢在晚上去那个公园,因为有个女人在那里被杀了).] 在大部分情况下,afraid表示的恐惧是很个人的,这种恐惧主要是与担心受到身体上的伤害有关.在谈话中Afraid也可以表示一种礼貌用法,仅仅表示一种轻微的担心.比如:I’m afraid I’m a bit late for my appointment(我担心我的约会快要迟到了).有时,使用Afraid也会隐含极大的恐惧.比如:If our present policy is continued, I am afraid that war is inevitable(如果我们的政策继续,恐怕战争是不可避免的了).

Frightened and scared often suggest fear of bodily harm, but not invariably; both may be used to describe vague fears of unknown source. [When the lights went out I got scared; She’s always frightened when she’s alone in the house.] Frightened has a more genteel sound than scared, but both apply strictly to physical felt fear, even if the causes are emotional or imaginary.

Frightenedscared通常表示害怕受到身体上的伤害,但是也不总是如此;两者都用来形容一种未知来源的模糊的恐惧.例如:[When the lights went out I got scared(当灯灭了的时候我感到害怕); She’s always frightened when she’s alone in the house(当她一个人在家时,她总是感到害怕).]使用Frightened比使用scared听起来有教养一些,但是二者均严格的只形容身体感到的恐惧(译注:因害怕身体受到伤害而感到恐惧),即使是恐惧的来源是情感上的或者是虚构的.

Anxious means tense and worried.

Anxious(焦虑的)表示紧张和担心.

Fearful may mean full of terror or dread, but often means merely apprehensive ?that is, anticipating danger, failure or trouble. In the latter sense, fearful shares with anxious the suggestion that the worry stems from inner concern without much relevance to external conditions, and is in this sense unreasonable.

Fearful(可怕的)表示充满了恐怖或者恐惧,但是通常仅仅是担心(apprehensive),也就是说对预期危险,失败或者烦恼的担心.当表示对烦恼的担心时,是表示对于源自内心深处的问题的担心,而不是因外部条件而担心,并且这种担心缺乏理由的.

Apprehensive suggests awareness of impending danger caused by circumstances, and does not depend so much on one’s peculiar nature or habitual state of mind.

Apprehensive表示担心因外部环境导致的即将发生的危险,与个人的独特的天生的或者习惯性的精神状态关系不大.

[She was anxious about her daughter being out so late at night; The playwright was fearful that his first opening would be a failure; an investor who was apprehensive about his holdings during the recession; We are frankly fearful of another depression unless the economy improves radically in the next few months.]

例句:[She was anxious about her daughter being out so late at night(她女儿这么晚了还出门让她感到担心); The playwright was fearful that his first opening would be a failure(那个编辑担心他的处女作可能会失败); an investor who was apprehensive about his holdings during the recession(经济衰退时,投资者担心他的股票); We are frankly fearful of another depression unless the economy improves radically in the next few months(老实说,我们很担心下一轮经济萧条,除非下个月经济能够彻底改善).]

Aghast, alarmed and terror-stricken are applied to strong feelings of fear or fright. 

Aghast(惊呆的), alarmed(惊恐的)和terror-stricken(受了强烈惊吓的)用来形容强烈的恐惧或者受到了强烈的惊吓.

Aghast means afraid or frightened to the point of shock. A man waking up in a burning house will be aghast at the thought that his family may be in grave danger. 

Aghast表示因为震惊和恐惧而惊呆了.A man waking up in a burning house will be aghast at the thought that his family may be in grave danger(一个男人在着火的房子里面醒来,想到他的家人可能会非常危险,他惊呆了).

Alarmed means suddenly and sharply afraid or frightened. Parents will be alarmed by a sudden outbreak of polio in their community.

Alarmed表示突发性的或者极度的担心或害怕.例如:Parents will be alarmed by a sudden outbreak of polio in their community(父母们会因为在他们小区突然爆发的脊髓灰质炎(小儿麻痹症)疫情而感到极度恐慌). 

Terror-stricken is the strongest word in this list, and suggests fear to strong that normal reactions are suppressed. A terror-stricken person who is drowning may in panic resist the efforts of someone who is trying to save him.

Terror-stricken(受了强烈惊吓的)在这组词汇(Aghast,alarmed和terror-stricken)中表示收惊吓的程度最深的,表示由于受到的惊吓太深导致常规的对受惊吓的反应已经失效了.例如:A terror-stricken person who is drowning may in panic resist the efforts of someone who is trying to save him(处于强烈恐惧中的溺水者,可能会惊慌的抵制试图救他的施救者的救援行动).

SEE: FEAR, FRIGHTEN, INTIMIDATE.
ANTONYMS: audacious, BRAVE, calm, confident, unafraid.
参考: FEAR, FRIGHTEN, INTIMIDATE.
反义词: audacious, BRAVE, calm, confident, unafraid.
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该日志由 边城网事 于2015年02月14日发表在 同义词辨析 - 每日一组 分类下, 你可以发表评论,并在保留原文地址及作者的情况下引用到你的网站或博客。
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