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0009- Accuse arraign charge impeach incriminate indict

 0009- Accuse arraign charge impeach incriminate indict

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These words all mean to declare a person to be guilty of some offence or shortcoming. 

这组词汇都是表示声明某人因为犯罪行为而有罪,或者声明某人因为缺点或过错而内疚.

Accuse is the most general word, and may be used in formal or informal, official or personal, contexts. An investigating committee may accuse an officeholder of wrongdoing; a neighbour may accuse a man of playing his radio too loudly.

Accuse (指控,指责)是最常用的,而且可以用于正式或者非正式环境中,可以用于官方和个人用语中.例如:An investigating committee may accuse an officeholder of wrongdoing(调查委员会可能会指控一个官员有罪); a neighbour may accuse a man of playing his radio too loudly(一个人可能会指责他邻居的收音机声音太大了).

Charge, in this context, means to accuse formally, usually before a court; by extension, it means to accuse informally of a violation of some accepted standard. [The police charged the driver with reckless driving; The candidate charged his opponent with evasion of the basic issues.]

Charge(控告)在这里意思是值正式的指控,通常是在庭审之前;另外,Charge的意思也可扩展为非正式的指责对一些约定俗成的标准的违反.例如:[The police charged the driver with reckless driving(警察控告司机危险驾驶); The candidate charged his opponent with evasion of the basic issues(候选人指责他的对手回避了一些基本问题).]

Incriminate means to charge a person with a crime directly, or to involve him in a crime by damaging testimony. In popular use, the latter is the more usual meaning: He was incriminated by an eyewitness who placed him at the scene of the crime.

Incriminate表示直接指控某人有罪,或者表示通过篡改证词让某人陷入某种犯罪行为,后者是更为流行的用法.例如:He was incriminated by an eyewitness who placed him at the scene of the crime(他因为目击证人指明他在犯罪现场而被控有罪).

Indict and arraign are legal terms. Indict, which is more commonly used in the United States than elsewhere, means to charge officially and to make subject to an appearance before a jury or judge. In an extended sense, indict is to charge unofficially but publicly: to indict a school of writing or painting as being obscurantist.  

Indict(揭发,起诉)和arraign(传讯,控告)是法律术语.美国人使用Indict最多,表示正式让被告人在陪审团和法官面前受到当面控告.indict意思也可以扩展成表示非正式的公开指控,例如:to indict a school of writing or painting as being obscurantist(公开控告学校的写作和绘画是愚昧的(反启蒙的)).

To arraign, legally, is to call an indicted person before a court for trial; by extension, to arraign is to call publicly but unofficially a person or a movement to stand judgement before public opinion or some other standard.

arraign(传讯,控告),从法律上说是在庭审之前传讯被告人;arraign意思也可引申为,在公众舆论谴责之前或者其他标准审判之前,公开但非正式的传唤某人或审判某人.

Technically, impeach means to arraign a person – usually a public official – before a competent tribunal on a charge of treason or other high crime. In Britain, where the process takes the form of prosecution by the House of Commons before the House of Lords, the last impeachment occurred in 1806, when Lord Melville was acquitted of malversation of public funds while treasurer of the navy.

impeach(弹劾)也是指指控一个人,通常是公开的正式的指控,这种指控在通常在主管法庭裁定当事人的叛国罪或者其他更高罪行之前进行.在英国,弹劾的流程通常是下议院在上议院之前起诉. 最后一起弹劾案发生在1806年(译注:英国1806年就取消弹劾了),议员Melville被无罪释放,其之前的罪行是在担任海军财务主管时贪污公款.

In extended use, to impeach is to discredit or to call into question: to impeach a witness; to impeach a person’s motives. 

在更广泛的用法中,impeach表示使得被弹人名誉扫地怀疑某人或者是传唤被弹劾人以便问讯,例如:to impeach a witness(传唤目击证人); to impeach a person’s motives(怀疑某人的动机).

SEE: DISAPPROVAL, REBUKE.
ANTONYMS: EXONERATE, PARDON. 
参见: DISAPPROVAL, REBUKE.
反义词: EXONERATE, PARDON.
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该日志由 边城网事 于2015年02月03日发表在 同义词辨析 - 每日一组 分类下, 你可以发表评论,并在保留原文地址及作者的情况下引用到你的网站或博客。
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