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0021- Aggression assault attack offensive

 0021- Aggression assault attack offensive

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All these words refer to actions initiated against other persons or groups, especially in wars.

这组词汇都表示侵犯他人或其他团体,尤其是在战争中侵犯.

Aggression means unprovoked belligerent action, as by one nation upon the territory of another. An attack is aimed at injuring or destroying others, often by catching them off guard and unprepared. An assault is a violent attack, so violent that it often implies personal abuse motivated by envy, malice and the like. Both attack and assault can be applied to any violent conflict, verbal as well as physical: a personal assault on the character of the chairman; a vigorous attack on the fiscal policy of the present government. [We will continue to resist aggression because tyranny must be resisted; The attack came just before dawn; The final assaults were designed to clear the last remnants of enemy resistance.]

Aggression(侵犯)表示一个国家针对领一个国家领土的无正当理由的挑衅行为.Attack(袭击,偷袭)旨在让对方受伤或者损毁,通常在对方没有防备或者准备的时候进行.Assault(攻击)是一种猛烈的袭击(Attack),通常意味着因为个人因为嫉妒怨恨等等而导致了袭击过于猛烈.attack和assault都可用于任何的口头上的或者身体上的暴力冲突.例如:a personal assault on the character of the chairman(个人对主 席人格的攻击); a vigorous attack on the fiscal policy of the present government(对当前政府的财政政策的爆轰(有力攻击)).[We will continue to resist aggression because tyranny must be resisted(我们将持续的抵制袭击因为暴政必须受到抵制); The attack came just before dawn(黎明之前的袭击); The final assaults were designed to clear the last remnants of enemy resistance(最后的猛烈攻击用于清理残余势力的最后抵抗).] 

Aggression, as the above example illustrates, is now widely used among diplomats to describe a variety of actions contrary or hostile to the interests of their own countries; aggression is thus a linguistic casualty of the cold war, and has lost much of its meaning. Assault suggests – perhaps more than attack – the element of suddenness and surprise, as evidenced by the expression “surprise attack”; such emphasis is unnecessary with assault. In psychoanalytic usage aggression is a tendency towards hostile action. This sense has led to a number of analogous popular usages: He’s just taking out his aggressions on me!

如上面的例子中所示,Aggression广泛用于外交领域,表示各类与本国利益相对的冲突或敌对行为;这样aggression这个词就成了冷战中语言学上的牺牲品,失去了它原来的很多含义.Assault表示的袭击的突发性和突然性可能比attack还要强烈,有一个短语”surprise attack”(译注:突然袭击=Assault)为证,因此使用assault是就没有必要再加上突然了(译注:surprise assault 是没有必要的).在精神分析学科方面,aggression表示有产生攻击行为的倾向.这中用法导致了大量类似下面的流行用法:He’s just taking out his aggressions on me(他正在攻击我)! 

An offensive is a movement or position of offence or attack. In some contexts it is interchangeable with attack, but in others it applies to a large-scale co-ordinated military campaign of men and matériel: a major new offensive was launched in the western front. In recent diplomatic language, offensive is sometimes used synonymously with initiative: a peace offensive in the form of a three-point offer to negotiate an end to the war.

offensive形容一种攻击性行动或者姿势.有些地方offensive可以和attack互换使用,但是在其他地方offensive更广泛的适用于人和设备一起的联合行军事行动.例如:a major new offensive was launched in the western front(西部前线发起的新一轮进攻). 在当前的外交用语中,有时offensive是initiative(倡议,提案)的同义词.例如:a peace offensive in the form of a three-point offer to negotiate an end to the war(三点和平提案用来协商结束战争).

SEE: ATTACK, FIGHT.
ANYONYMS: defence, repulsion, retreat, surrender, withdrawal.
参见: ATTACK, FIGHT.
反义词: defence, repulsion, retreat, surrender, withdrawal.
   
   
   
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该日志由 边城网事 于2015年02月15日发表在 同义词辨析 - 每日一组 分类下, 你可以发表评论,并在保留原文地址及作者的情况下引用到你的网站或博客。
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