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0017-Addition accessory adjunct appendage appendix appurtenance attachment supplement

 0017-Addition accessory adjunct appendage appendix appurtenance attachment supplement

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These words all refer to parts of a whole, either integral or incidental. Addition and supplement share one sense in which the part and whole being joined are alike in kind, so that only an increase in quantity results. [The new members will be a welcome addition to the club; A vitamin supplement is not necessary for the average diet.] Both words have uses, on the other hand, in which the part remains distinguishable from and subordinate to the whole. [What a charming addition the sunroom makes to your house; The paper-covered book of quizzes was a supplement to the class’s mathematics textbook.] A supplement can also be a standard or special section of a newspaper: the Sunday supplement on the autumn fashions. Appendix, like supplement, can refer to a part of a book, but is more often bound with the book itself. Neither of these are essential to the book’s completeness, although both would offer additional details on given material.

这些词汇均与添加一个整体中的部分相关,可以是整体的必不可少的部分或者是次要部分。Addition(附加)和 supplement(补充)都表示要加入整体的部分与整体在品种上是类似的,所以这两个词都表示数量上的增加。例如:[The new members will be a welcome addition to the club(俱乐部热烈欢迎新成员); A vitamin supplement is not necessary for the average diet(均衡饮食无需再补充维生素).]另外,这个两个词表示的新增的部分从属于整体并且在整体中依然是可区分的。例如:[What a charming addition the sunroom makes to your house(日光浴室真是你家房子的一个可爱的扩充); The paper-covered book of quizzes was a supplement to the class’s mathematics textbook(这本平装的练习册是班级的数学教科书的补充。).]supplement也可以表示报刊的标准或者补充部分(译注:类似增刊的那种,或者特刊),例如:the Sunday supplement on the autumn fashions(autumn fashions的周日特刊).Appendix(附录)与supplement类似可以表示一本书的一部分,通常是这本书内容本身的一部分,但并不是这本书必不可少的,尽管它们都为被附加物提供了附加的细节信息。

Appendage refers to a more integral part of a whole than do any of the other terms. It is especially used in the life sciences to indicate the limbs or extremities of a plant or animal. No one except such a scientist, however, is likely ?even in the most formal of contexts ?to use appendage in preference to limb, branch, arm, leg, tail or whatever. Biologists themselves, in fact, can be every bit as exact and certainly more succinct in speaking of a monkey’s tail rather than its caudal appendage. In other uses of this word, the subordination of the part to the whole is emphasized. Such uses may be rather stiff except when a note of mockery is conveyed. [It was apparent to everyone that the husband had become a mere appendage to his wealthy wife.]

与本组词汇中的其他词汇相比,Appendage表示的附加部分对整体来说是最为至关重要的。Appendage特指生命科学中用于表示动植物的肢干或者肢体末端,手足等。除了科学家,即使在非常正式的场合,也没有人会用这个词来表示,四肢,枝干,手臂,腿,尾巴等等。事实上,生物学家自己为了准确和简洁,会说猴子尾巴而不会说猴子的尾部附肢(caudalappendage).Appendage词的其他用法,主要强调了附加部分对整体的从属性。如果没有传达出嘲弄的意味,这种用法可能会现的非常呆板。例如:[It was apparent to everyone that the husband had become a mere appendage to his wealthy wife.]

Appurtenance and adjunct both refer to a part that becomes a valuable addition to a whole, though not essential to it. Appurtenance has a specific legal sense of an incidental property right that goes together with a major right, such as the right of way to a building. The sense of a gratuitous advantage pervades its other meanings as well: He was unusual in considering her beauty as an appurtenance to her vigorous mind, and not vice versa. In adjunct, the separateness of the added part is stressed: Memorization is only an adjunct to real education, not its whole.

Appurtenanceadjunct表示的部分都是整体的有价值的部分,尽管不是必不可少的。Appurtenance有在法律术语上的特殊含义,表示主要权利的一个附带所有权,比如表示建筑物的相关权限。Appurtenance的其他用法中都含有一种无端的优越性,例如:He was unusual in considering her beauty as an appurtenance to her vigorous mind, and not vice versa(他十分罕见的人为她的美貌是她旺盛精力的补充,反之亦然).adjunct强调附加部分与整体之间是分离的,例如:Memorization is only an adjunct to real education, not its whole(记忆只是教育的一部分,不是其全部).

Attachment and accessory refer to parts that are neither essential to nor fused with the whole they complement. An attachment increases the usability of the original whole for which it is specifically designed, although its use is optional: If we had a flash-bulb attachment we could also take pictures at night. One meaning of accessory is identical with that of attachment, as in car accessories. Another sense of accessory points to its enhancing of the beauty, rather than the usefulness of the whole to which it is added: the tastefully chosen accessories that dramatize the simplest dress or suit.

Attachmentaccessory表示的部分对于整体来说不是必须的也不会融合到整体中去。attachment表示的附件扩展了经特别设计的整体的用处,尽管这种附加用处是可选的,例如:If we had a flash-bulb attachment we could also take pictures at night(如果我们有个闪光灯附件我们还可以在晚上拍照). accessory的一种用法是与attachment相同,比如:as in car accessories(汽车配件).accessory的另外一个意思强调配件增加整体的美观性,而不是强调配件对整体的用处的增强,比如:the tastefully chosen accessories that dramatize the simplest dress or suit(高雅的配饰让普通的礼服和西装有了戏剧化的效果).

SEE: EXTRANEOUS.
ANTONYMS: abstraction, deletion, omission, subtraction.
参见: EXTRANEOUS.
反义词: abstraction, deletion, omission, subtraction.
   
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该日志由 边城网事 于2015年02月13日发表在 同义词辨析 - 每日一组 分类下, 你可以发表评论,并在保留原文地址及作者的情况下引用到你的网站或博客。
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