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0022- Alcoholic boozer dipsomaniac drunk drunkard inebriate soak sot tippler wino

 0022- Alcoholic boozer dipsomaniac drunk drunkard inebriate soak sot tippler wino

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These words refer to a person who habitually drinks alcoholic beverages to excess.  这组词汇都用于表示习惯性的饮用含酒精饮料直到过量的人.

Alcoholic and drunkard are the most general of these, the first being the more formal and neutral of the two: Drunkard carries a tone of condemnation and can apply justly only to someone who frequently drinks past the point of sobriety: Anyone can see he’s a common drunkard the way he staggers home night after night. Alcoholic was at one time simply a medical description for someone who could not moderated his intake after the first drink. It has since become so popular as a general term that it appears often in informal contexts as well. Even informally the word lacks the tone of disapproval implicit in drunkard. It should be noted, however, that an alcoholic, unlike a drunkard, may have abstained from alcohol completely for years: He used to be a drunkard, but now he refuses drinks at parties by saying , “Sorry, but I’m an alcoholic.” 

Alcoholic(酗酒者)和drunkard(醉鬼)是这组中最常用的,两者当中Alcoholic更为正式一些,并且是中性的,Drunkard带有一种谴责语气,仅用于表示经常性的因为喝多了而丧失清醒的人.例如:Anyone can see he’s a common drunkard the way he staggers home night after night(每天晚上任何人都能看到醉鬼一样的他东倒西歪的走进家门.).Alcoholic曾经仅为医学上的一个术语表示一个人首次喝酒以后就不能控制合适的酒精摄入量.从那以后,Alcoholic作为一种常规用法变得太流行了,也用于非正式的上下文当中.甚至因为太过于非正式,Alcoholic逐渐丧失了drunkard所隐含的那种不赞成的意味.然而,需要指出的是,与drunkard不同,用alcoholic形容的人可能已经彻底戒酒很多年了,例如:He used to be a drunkard, but now he refuses drinks at parties by saying , “Sorry, but I’m an alcoholic.”(他曾经是个醉鬼,但是现在他通过宣称:“我曾经是个酒鬼”来拒绝喝酒) 

Inebriate and dipsomaniac are technical terms to describe an excessive drinker, but alcoholic has so widely displaced them that both terms now seem antiquated or fusty. An inebriate, strictly speaking, is a person who is intoxicated at the moment of being described. Dipsomaniac , once the word for a chronic alcoholic (one whose steady intake does not disrupt his living patterns), now might be primarily jocose. 

Inebriatedipsomaniac都是描述过量饮酒者的术语,但是因为alcoholic已经广泛的取代了它们,因此现在看来这两个词都已经显得过时的或老式的。严格的讲,inebriate在形容一个人时,那个人是处于醉酒状态的。而Dipsomaniac则表示一个长期的酗酒者(稳定的酒精摄入量没有影响他生活的人),现在主要用于开玩笑的语气中。

The rest of these words are either extremely informal or slang. A boozer might denote an acute alcoholic, one who alternates between periods of sobriety and intoxication in a pattern disruptive of his normal life. On the other hand, boozer can be used almost admiringly to describe a person who drinks a great deal without losing control of himself. [He was the most unbelievable boozer I ever saw; he could down six straight whiskies and never bat an eye.]  

本组词汇中除了上面几个之外,都表示极度的非正式用法或者用于俚语中。boozer表示一个真正的酒鬼,他阶段性的处于清醒和醉酒状态中,这种交替状态已经影响了他的正常生活了。另一方面,boozer 用于充满崇拜之情的描述一个千杯不醉的人。例如:[He was the most unbelievable boozer I ever saw(他是我见过的最能喝的人); he could down six straight whiskies and never bat an eye(他连喝六瓶威士忌,眼都不带眨一下的).] 

Drunk is, of course, a shortening of drunkard, having greater informality than the latter and a tone of even greater contempt. A sot is one who is drunk most of the time, as is a soak.

Drunkdrunkard的简化形式,相对drunkard来说,是很不正式的用法,含有一种十分轻蔑的语气.sot表示一个大部分时间都是在喝酒的人,同soak.

Tippler and wino both refer to specific kinds of drinkers. A tippler drinks small amounts at frequent intervals over long periods of time. The word is often used for the secret or private drinker: No one would have guessed that the headmistress was a tippler except the man who carried away the empty bottles. Wino is usually applied to a tramp or derelict whose addiction to alcohol is satisfied by drinking inexpensive fortified wines. It is also used for any heavy drinker whose intake is primarily of wine. 

Tipplerwino都表示特殊的嗜酒者.tippler表示在长时间内,并且具备固定时间间隔的饮用少量的酒.这两个词经常用来形容秘密饮酒的饮酒者,例如:No one would have guessed that the headmistress was a tippler except the man who carried away the empty bottles(除了拿走空酒瓶的人,没人能猜到女校长其实是个酒鬼).Wino通常用于形容那些因满足于廉价的勾兑强化酒而上瘾的流浪汗或者被遗弃者,同时Wino还表示大量饮酒的人,并且饮用的主要是白酒.

ANTONYMS: abstainer, non-drinker, teetotaller. 反义词: abstainer, non-drinker, teetotaller.
   
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